Impact Factor:6.549
 Scopus Suggested Journal: UNDER REVIEW for TITLE INCLUSSION

International Journal
of Computer Engineering in Research Trends (IJCERT)

Scholarly, Peer-Reviewed, Open Access and Multidisciplinary

Welcome to IJCERT

International Journal of Computer Engineering in Research Trends. Scholarly, Peer-Reviewed,Open Access and Multidisciplinary

ISSN(Online):2349-7084                 Submit Paper    Check Paper Status    Conference Proposal

Back to Current Issues

Urbanization and the Slum Dwellers’ “Right to the City”: The Case of Pag-Asa, Olongapo City, Philippines

Cecilia C. Garson, Roy N. Villalobos, Marie Fe D. de Guzman, ,
1,2,3 : Graduate School, President Ramon Magsaysay State University (PRMSU), Iba, Zambales, Philippines

Background/Objectives: Olongapo city is a unique case because it is the most urbanized city in Central Luzon. Additionally, the former United States Naval Base is located in Olongapo City. This study will argue that more than just areas of ‘unsafe housing, cramped space, disease, vice and poverty’, these communities, like Pag-asa are areas of resistance of the underprivileged, the disadvantaged and the marginalized groups against the government’s denial of their right to the city. Methods/Statistical analysis: This study is a qualitative research which utilized a descriptive case study design to have an in depth understanding on the everyday struggle of the slum dwellers in Pag-Asa Olongapo City. Findings: This study sought to answer how the struggle for the right to the city is manifested in slums by using Pag-asa, Olongapo City as the case study. The resistance may not always be in a form of an overt social movement that is why aside from their organization, relocatees who returned to Pag-Asa as well as renters that continue to settle in Pag-Asa despite knowing that the area is in threat of demolition, are also crucial actors of resistance. The proximity to work is the main reason why most of the dwellers refuse to leave the place, more so, it shows that slum dwellers are willing to face everyday risks just to remain in the area. While hopelessness, poverty and blight are uncontentious images involved when talking about slums, it is interesting to note that the slum dwellers in Pag-asa are living harmoniously. The people treat each other as family, hence, it is one of the reasons why despite the relocation site offered by the government, the dwellers prefer to stay in the community. Improvements/Applications: Based on the fieldworks conducted for this study, other studies aiming to challenge the dominant and marginalizing discourses on the urban poor can also focus on the role of women in resistance movements through using the feminist approach of ‘the personal is the political’. The result of this study may help the government design more inclusive urban policies and programs that can reflect the interests of both the LGU and the dwellers. Lastly, it is also interesting to look at the implications of the slow violence that the urban poor is experiencing in relation to how this affects their mentality towards themselves.

Cecilia C. Garson,Roy N. Villalobos,Marie Fe D. de Guzman."Urbanization and the Slum Dwellers’ “Right to the City”: The Case of Pag-Asa, Olongapo City, Philippines ". International Journal of Computer Engineering In Research Trends (IJCERT) ,ISSN:2349-7084 , Vol.8, Issue 08,pp.140-150, August - 2021, URL :,

Keywords : Urbanization, Slum Dwellers, Right to the City’, Residents of Pag-Asa, Olongapo, Philippines.

1.	 Carmody, P. & Owuso F. “Neoliberalism, Urbanization and Change in Africa: The Political Economy of Heterotopias, Journal of African Development, Vol.18,No.18,pp.61-73, 2016. 
2.	Garrido, M. Z. “The Patchwork City, Class, Space, Politics in Metro Manila”, Chicago,                      Illinois.University of Chicago Press., 2019
3.	UN-HABITAT, “State of the World’s Cities 2012/2013 Prosperity of Cities UN HABITAT”, 2013
4.	Ron Mahabir, R.,  Crooks, I.A., Croitoru, I.A. & Agouris, P., “The study of slums as social and physical constructs: challenges and emerging research opportunities”, Regional Studies, Regional Science, Volume 3, 2016 - Issue 1, 2016
5.	West J., “Urbanization and Slums in Asia”. Asian Century Institute, 2014
6.	UN HABITAT, “Global report on human settlementS 2011, Cities and Climate Change”, United Nations Human Settlements Programme, 2011
7.	Lagman, M., “Informal settlements as spatial outcomes of everyday forms of resistance: the case of three depressed communities in Quezon City”,  Political Social Science Review, 2012	
8.	Lefebvre, H., “The production of space”, Malden, MA: Blackwell. Original work published in 1974. 1991
9.	Harvey, D. “The right to the city”, New Left Review, Vol. 53, pp. 23-40, 2008
10.	Marcuse, P. “Reading the Right to the City: Analysis of Urban trends, culture, Theory, policy, action”, Retrieved July 10,2019, from, 2014
11.	Kumar, K. “Sociology and the Englishness of English Social Theory”, First Published March 1, 2001 Research Article, 2001
12.	Davis, M. “Planet of Slums. New York, USA: The Guardian, 2006
13.	Landa J. F., “Experience and Perspectives in a Slum Neighborhood: An Anthropological View”, PSR 21, pp. 223-28, 197, 
14.	Niva, V, Taka, M & Varis, O. “Rural-Urban Migration and the Growth of Informal Settlements: A Socio-Ecological System Conceptualization with Insights through a Water Lens”., 2019
15.	Ballesteros, M. M., “Linking Poverty and the Environment: Evidence from Slums in the Philippine Cities” Phil. Institute for Development Studies, 2010
16.	World Economic Forum, “From Slum to Success Story: This is Ciudad Neza”, www.weforum. January 18, 2021     
17.	World Bank, “The World Bank Annual Report 2017”, Washington, DC: World Bank. © World Bank. License: CC BY-NC-ND 3.0 IGO. 2017
18.	Bayat, A., “From ‘dangerous classes’ to ‘quiet rebels’: Politics of the urban subaltern in the global south”, In Sage Journals: International Sociology, Vol. 15(3), pp. 533–557, 2000
19.	Mahmud, T., “Slums, Slumdogs, and Resistance”, In American University Journal of Gender, Social Policy & the Law (Vol. 18(3), pp. 685-710, 2010
20.	Scott, J., “Beyond the war of Words: Cautious Resistance and Calculated Conformity" in Amoore, L. The Global Resistance, London and New York: Routledge, 2005
21.	Harvey D. “A Brief History of Neoliberalism”, Oxford University Press Inc., New York. 2012
22.	UN Habitat III, “Urbanization and Development Emerging Futures”, UN HabiTat III for a better Urban Future, 2016

DOI Link :

Download :

Refbacks : Currently there are no Refbacks


Authors are not required to pay any article-processing charges (APC) for their article to be published open access in Journal IJCERT. No charge is involved in any stage of the publication process, from administrating peer review to copy editing and hosting the final article on dedicated servers. This is free for all authors. 

News & Events

Latest issue :Volume 10 Issue 1 Articles In press

A plagiarism check will be implemented for all the articles using world-renowned software. Turnitin.

Digital Object Identifier will be assigned for all the articles being published in the Journal from September 2016 issue, i.e. Volume 3, Issue 9, 2016.

IJCERT is a member of the prestigious.Each of the IJCERT articles has its unique DOI reference.
DOI Prefix : 10.22362/ijcert

IJCERT is member of The Publishers International Linking Association, Inc. (“PILA”)

Emerging Sources Citation Index (in process)

IJCERT title is under evaluation by Scopus.

Key Dates

☞   LAST DATE OF SUBMISSION : 31st March 2023
In 7 Days

Important Announcements

All the authors, conference coordinators, conveners, and guest editors kindly check their articles' originality before submitting them to IJCERT. If any material is found to be duplicate submission or sent to other journals when the content is in the process with IJCERT, fabricated data, cut and paste (plagiarized), at any stage of processing of material, IJCERT is bound to take the following actions.
1. Rejection of the article.
2. The author will be blocked for future communication with IJCERT if duplicate articles are submitted.
3. A letter regarding this will be posted to the Principal/Director of the Institution where the study was conducted.
4. A List of blacklisted authors will be shared among the Chief Editors of other prestigious Journals
We have been screening articles for plagiarism with a world-renowned tool: Turnitin However, it is only rejected if found plagiarized. This more stern action is being taken because of the illegal behavior of a handful of authors who have been involved in ethical misconduct. The Screening and making a decision on such articles costs colossal time and resources for the journal. It directly delays the process of genuine materials.

Citation Index

Citations Indices All
Citations 1026
h-index 14
i10-index 20
Source: Google Scholar

Acceptance Rate (By Year)

Acceptance Rate (By Year)
Year Rate
2021 10.8%
2020 13.6%
2019 15.9%
2018 14.5%
2017 16.6%
2016 15.8%
2015 18.2%
2014 20.6%

Important Links

Conference Proposal