Impact Factor:6.549
 Scopus Suggested Journal: UNDER REVIEW for TITLE INCLUSSION

International Journal
of Computer Engineering in Research Trends (IJCERT)

Scholarly, Peer-Reviewed, Open Access and Multidisciplinary

Welcome to IJCERT

International Journal of Computer Engineering in Research Trends. Scholarly, Peer-Reviewed,Open Access and Multidisciplinary

ISSN(Online):2349-7084                 Submit Paper    Check Paper Status    Conference Proposal

Back to Current Issues

Fighting Crime and Insecurity in Nigeria: An Intelligent Approach

Mubarak Albarka Umar, Abubakar Aliyu Machina, Muazzamu Ibrahim, Ja’afar A. Nasir,Abdullahi Saheed Salahudeen, Musa Mustapha, Isiaka Shuaibu
1: Katsina State Institute of Technology and Management, Katsina, Nigeria. 2,4,5,6: Changchun University of Science and Technology, Jilin, China. 3: Binyaminu Usman Polytechnic, Hadejia, Jigawa, Nigeria. 7: Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger, Nigeria.

Over the years, insecurity and crime have been significant issue in Nigeria. While the country successfully dealt with the past insecurity challenges conventionally, the government has failed to contain the new insecurity and crime challenges, especially that of the well-known Boko Haram lingering for over a decade now. This is due to various reasons, mainly the use of the same outdated, futile strategy. Several researchers have proposed numerous ways of tackling such insecurity challenges, mostly via a conventional approach; however, very few researchers proposed a more technological approach towards combating the insecurity challenges. In this paper, we discussed some modern technologies and how they can be applied to fight the new insecurities and crimes in Nigeria. We proposed the use of a Central Database as a backbone model serving as a central point of reference for all law enforcement agencies. Various modern technologies such as Facial recognition surveillance, Automatic plate number recognition, GIS and Crime Mapping, and Voice recognition are proposed to be integrated and used to identify and predict criminal activities, thus, mitigating the nation’s prolonged insecurity and terrorism vulnerabilities.

Mubarak Albarka Umar,Abubakar Aliyu Machina,Muazzamu Ibrahim,Ja’afar A. Nasir,Abdullahi Saheed Salahudeen,Musa Mustapha, Isiaka Shuaibu."Fighting Crime and Insecurity in Nigeria: An Intelligent Approach". International Journal of Computer Engineering In Research Trends (IJCERT) ,ISSN:2349-7084,Vol.8, Issue 01,pp.6-14, January- 2021, URL :,

Keywords : Crime and Insecurity, Modern Technology, National Database, Facial Recognition, GIS and Crime Mapping.

A.A. Ambrose, et al.,2015 “Design of a Face Recognition System for Security Control”, International Conference on African Development Issues (CU-ICADI) 2015: Information and Communication Technology Track,
A.I. Oludare, et al.,2015 ”the Use of ICT Tools in Tackling Insecurity and Terrorism Problem in Nigeria” Network and Complex Systems, Vol.5, No.5, (January,2015)  
Adegbami, A. and Uche, C. (2016). Poverty and Crimes in Nigeria: Indices of Governance Failure. Public Administration Research, 5(1), p.37.
Ahmed, S., Haque, M., Guha, S., Rifat, M. and Dell, N. (2017). Privacy, Security, and Surveillance in the Global South: A Study of Biometric Mobile SIM Registration in Bangladesh. Proceedings of the 2017 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - CHI '17. 
Ajayi, J. and Longe, O. (2015). Public Perception of the Police and Crime–Prevention in Nigeria. British Journal of Education, Society & Behavioural Science, 6(2), pp.145-153.
Amusan, D., Arulogun, O. and Falohu, A. (2015). Nigerian Vehicle License Plate Recognition System using Artificial Neural Network. IJARCCE, 4(11), pp.1-5.
Attah, A., Adedigba, A. and Aibinu, A. (2016). Development of Nigerian Vehicles License Plate Recognition and Classification System. Journal of Science, Technology, Mathematics and Education (JOSTMED),, 12(1), pp.125-133.
B.  Shivam, et al., 2018, “Crime Detection Using Text Recognition and Face Recognition”, International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics.
Balogun, T., Okeke, H. and Chukwukere, C. (2014). Crime Mapping in Nigeria Using GIS. Journal of Geographic Information System, [online] 06(05), pp.453-466. Available at:
C. Chauhan and S. Sehgal, "A review: Crime analysis using data mining techniques and algorithms," 2017 International Conference on Computing, Communication and Automation (ICCCA), Greater Noida, 2017, pp. 21-25. doi: 10.1109/CCAA.2017.8229823
Chen, H. and Wang, F. (2005). Artificial Intelligence for Homeland Security. IEEE, 20(5), pp.12-16.
Counter, P. (2016). 4 Unique Applications of Voice Recognition | FindBiometrics. [online] FindBiometrics. Available at: [Accessed 20 Jan. 2019].
David, M. (2013) 20 mind-blowing social media statistics: three years later – Econsultancy. Available at: (Accessed: 11 February 2019).
Denef, S. et al. (2012) ‘Best Practice in Police Social Media Adaptation’, pp. 1–19.
Donovan, K. and Martin, A. (2014). The rise of African SIM registration: The emerging dynamics of regulatory change. First Monday, 19(2)
Ene Donald, Osagie, N. Favour (2016).  Analysing GSM Insecurity. International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI), [online] III(ISSN 2321–2705), pp.13-17. Available at: [Accessed 13 Feb. 2019].
Eke, H., Omekwu, C. and Odoh, J. (2014). The Use of Social Networking Sites among the Undergraduate Students of University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal).
Erik Qualman (2009) ‘Social Media: Fad or Revolution?’ - Search Engine Watch Search Engine Watch. Available at: (Accessed: 7 February 2019).
European Commission. (2018). Fighting crime and terrorism with voice recognition - Information Centre - Research & Innovation. [online] Available at: [Accessed 25 Jan. 2019].
Ewetan, O. and Urhie, E. (2014). Insecurity and Socio-Economic Development in Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Development Studies, 5(1)(2201-4268), pp.40-63.
Ezenkwu, C. P. (2013) ‘Community Informatics Social Network for Facilitated Community Policing: A Case Study of Nigeria’, Software Engineering (Science Publishing Group), 1(3), p. 22. doi: 10.11648/
Fajnzylber, P., Lederman, D. and Loayza, N. (1999) ‘What Causes Violent Crime?’, European Economic Review, 46, pp. 1323–1357. Available at:
Fatih, T. and Bekir, C. (2015). Police Use of Technology to Fight Against Crime. European Scientific Journal, 11(10), pp.286 - 296.
Ferrara, E., De Meo, P., Catanese, S. and Fiumara, G. (2014). Detecting criminal organizations in mobile phone networks. Expert Systems with Applications, [online] 41(13), pp.2-10. Available at: [Accessed 26 Jan. 2019].
Global Terrorism Database (2017) START_GTD_Heat_Map_2017.jpg (4202×1879). Available at: (Accessed: 7 February 2019).
GSMA & NCC 2013. “The mandatory registration of prepaid SIM card users — A white paper” (19 November), at, [Accessed 28 Jan. 2019].
Hasan, N., Ahmed, M., Islam, R. and Majadi, N. (2014). Mobile phone SIM card: A security concern in the perspective of Bangladesh. 16th Int'l Conf. Computer and Information Technology.
Hemeson, C. (2012). Directive on Consumer Data for SIM Card Registration in the Telecommunications Sector: An African Perspective. SSRN Electronic Journal.
Jacques, Damien C. (2018). Mobile Phone Metadata for Development. In: Mobile Phone Metadata for Development. [online] Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium, pp.1-18. Available at: http://arXiv:1806.03086V1 [cs.CY] [Accessed 9 Feb. 2019].
Krause, J. (2011) ‘A deadly cycle ethno-religious conflict in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria’, Working Paper. doi: 978-2-9700-771-0-7.
Li, S., Sharda, D. and Fisher, D. (2014). Voice filter system. US20140379342A1.
M. OGABOH, A., MOSES, I., E.M., U. and A. O., B. (2010). Telecommunications Revolution: Implications on Criminality and Family Crisis in the South-South States of Nigeria. Computer and Information Science.
Madhavi, P. (2013). Applications of GIS in Crime Mapping. [online] ESDS Official Knowledgebase. Available at: [Accessed 6 Feb. 2019].
McMillan, J., Glisson, W. and Bromby, M. (2013). Investigating the Increase in Mobile Phone Evidence in Criminal Activities. 2013 46th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, [online] pp.1-5. Available at: [Accessed 20 Jan. 2019].
Michael, E., Chinwokwu, E. and Arop, S. (2014). Subscribers’ Perception of SIM Card Retrieval: Implications on Criminality and Behaviour in Calabar Municipality, Cross River State. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences.
N. D. Lane, E. Miluzzo, H. Lu, D. Peebles, T. Choudhury, A. T. Campbell, A survey of mobile phone sensing, IEEE Communications magazine 48 (2010). 
National Research Council (2002). Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism. Washington DC: National Academy Press.
Nayak, A. and Dutta, K. (2017). Impacts of Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence on Mankind. IEEE.
Newnam, J. (2013). Fighting Crime with Mobile Technology. [online] South University. Available at: [Accessed 1 Feb. 2019].
North Yorkshire Police. (2018). #Behindthescenes - how technology helps keep North Yorkshire safe: ANPR - North Yorkshire Police. [online] Available at: [Accessed 23 Jan. 2019].
Oguntunde, P., Ojo, O., Okagbue, H. and Oguntunde, O. (2018). Analysis of selected crime data in Nigeria. Data in Brief, 19, pp.1242-1249.
Owomayo, N., Fadele, A. and Abudu, A. (2013). Number Plate Recognition for Nigerian Vehicles. SAVAP International, 4(3), pp.48-56.
Palmer, A. (2018). CCTV cameras will soon be equipped with facial recognition technology. [online] Mail Online. Available at: [Accessed 18 May 2018].
Papachristos, A. V. and Sierra-Arevalo, M. (2018) ‘Policing the Connected World: Using Social Network Analysis in Police-Community Partnerships’. Available at:
Qadri, M. and Asif, M. (2009). Automatic Number Plate Recognition System for Vehicle Identification Using Optical Character Recognition. 2009 International Conference on Education Technology and Computer, IEEE.
Raphael, N. S. (2015) ‘Ethno-religious conflicts, mass media and national development: the northern nigeria experience. University of Jos’. Available at: NOAH SULE.pdf.
Ratcliffe, J. and Chainey, S. (2013). Gis and crime mapping. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley.
Rhead, M., Gurney, R., Ramalingam, S. and Cohen, N. (2012). Accuracy of automatic number plate recognition (ANPR) and real-world UK number plate problems. 2012 IEEE International Carnahan Conference on Security Technology (ICCST). [online] Available at: [Accessed 23 Jan. 2019].
Robert, D. S. (2013) ‘Social Media: Establishing Criteria for Law Enforcement Use — LEB’. Available at: (Accessed: 8 February 2019).
S. Chetna et al. “Human Face Recognition and Face Detection using Skin Color Model “International Journal of Current Engineering and Technology, Vol.4, No.4 (Aug 2014)
Sachdeva, N. and Kumaraguru, P. (2014) ‘Online Social Media and Police in India: Behavior, Perceptions, Challenges’, (March). doi: 10.1016/j.poly.2012.12.036.
Salfraz, M., Shahzad, A., Elahi, M., Fraz, M., Zafar, I. and Edirisinghe, E. (2013). Real-time automatic license plate recognition for CCTV forensic applications. Journal of Real-Time Image Processing, 8(3), pp.285-295.
Scassa, T. (2017) ‘Law Enforcement in the Age of Big Data and Surveillance Intermediaries: Transparency Challenges’, SCRIPT-ed, 14(2), pp. 239–284. doi: 10.2966/scrip.140217.239.
Shreyas, R., Kumar, B., Adithya, H., Padmaja, B. and Sunil, M. (2017). Dynamic traffic rule violation monitoring system using automatic number plate recognition with SMS feedback. 2017 2nd International Conference on Telecommunication and Networks (TEL-NET). [online] Available at: [Accessed 23 Jan. 2019].
Spizman, R. J. and Miller, M. K. (2013) ‘Plugged-in policing: Student perceptions of law enforcement’s use of social media’, Applied Psychology in Criminal Justice, 9(2), pp. 100–123. Available at:
Stuart, R. (2013). Social Media: Establishing Criteria for Law Enforcement Use. [online] FBI: Law Enforcement Bulletin. Available at: [Accessed 16 Jan. 2019].
Tayo, A. and Gideon, A. (2013). Vehicle License Plate Recognition Using Edge Detection and Neural Network. International Journal on Cybernetics & Informatics, 2(1), pp.1-7.
Tiamiyu O. A. and Mejabi, O. V. (2012). Evaluation of Subscriber Attitude to Mobile Number Portability Implementation in Nigeria, [online] Vol3(2079-8407), pp.2-5. Available at: [Accessed 12 Feb. 2019].
Terkimbi, N. (2018). Insecurity In Nigeria And Matters Arising. Leadership. [online] Available at: [Accessed 10 May 2018].
Vincent, J. (2018). Artificial intelligence is going to supercharge surveillance. [online] The Verge. Available at: [Accessed 18 May 2018].
Visa International Service Association, California (2014). Voice filter system. US20140379342A1.
WANEP NIGERIA (2018) ‘80 People killed and over 44 People injured in communal violence in Kaduna State, Nigeria’, pp. 1–3.
Whitehead, S., Mailley, J., Storer, I., McCardle, J., Torrens, G. and Farrell, G. (2007). IN SAFE HANDS: A Review of Mobile Phone Anti-theft Designs. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, 14(1), pp.39-60
Wojuola, J. (2018). Insecurity in Nigeria: Tough times don’t last, but tough people do. Vanguard. [online] Available at: [Accessed 10 May 2018].
Yelwa, S. (2012). Complementing GIS with Cluster Analysis in Assessing Property Crime in Katsina State, Nigeria. American International Journal of Contemporary Research, [online] Vol. 2(7). Available at:

DOI Link :

Download :

Refbacks : Currently there are no Refbacks


Authors are not required to pay any article-processing charges (APC) for their article to be published open access in Journal IJCERT. No charge is involved in any stage of the publication process, from administrating peer review to copy editing and hosting the final article on dedicated servers. This is free for all authors. 

News & Events

Latest issue :Volume 10 Issue 1 Articles In press

A plagiarism check will be implemented for all the articles using world-renowned software. Turnitin.

Digital Object Identifier will be assigned for all the articles being published in the Journal from September 2016 issue, i.e. Volume 3, Issue 9, 2016.

IJCERT is a member of the prestigious.Each of the IJCERT articles has its unique DOI reference.
DOI Prefix : 10.22362/ijcert

IJCERT is member of The Publishers International Linking Association, Inc. (“PILA”)

Emerging Sources Citation Index (in process)

IJCERT title is under evaluation by Scopus.

Key Dates

☞   LAST DATE OF SUBMISSION : 31st March 2023
In 7 Days

Important Announcements

All the authors, conference coordinators, conveners, and guest editors kindly check their articles' originality before submitting them to IJCERT. If any material is found to be duplicate submission or sent to other journals when the content is in the process with IJCERT, fabricated data, cut and paste (plagiarized), at any stage of processing of material, IJCERT is bound to take the following actions.
1. Rejection of the article.
2. The author will be blocked for future communication with IJCERT if duplicate articles are submitted.
3. A letter regarding this will be posted to the Principal/Director of the Institution where the study was conducted.
4. A List of blacklisted authors will be shared among the Chief Editors of other prestigious Journals
We have been screening articles for plagiarism with a world-renowned tool: Turnitin However, it is only rejected if found plagiarized. This more stern action is being taken because of the illegal behavior of a handful of authors who have been involved in ethical misconduct. The Screening and making a decision on such articles costs colossal time and resources for the journal. It directly delays the process of genuine materials.

Citation Index

Citations Indices All
Citations 1026
h-index 14
i10-index 20
Source: Google Scholar

Acceptance Rate (By Year)

Acceptance Rate (By Year)
Year Rate
2021 10.8%
2020 13.6%
2019 15.9%
2018 14.5%
2017 16.6%
2016 15.8%
2015 18.2%
2014 20.6%

Important Links

Conference Proposal