Impact Factor:6.549
 Scopus Suggested Journal: UNDER REVIEW for TITLE INCLUSSION

International Journal
of Computer Engineering in Research Trends (IJCERT)

Scholarly, Peer-Reviewed, Open Access and Multidisciplinary

Welcome to IJCERT

International Journal of Computer Engineering in Research Trends. Scholarly, Peer-Reviewed,Open Access and Multidisciplinary

ISSN(Online):2349-7084                 Submit Paper    Check Paper Status    Conference Proposal

Back to Current Issues

A Study on Role of Medical Representatives in Pharmaceutical Promotion in Bangladesh

Md. Mahfujur Rahman, Md. Al-Amin, Kazi Mahfuzur, ,
1: Institute of Health Economics, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 2: Institute of Education and Research, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 3: Institute of Disaster Management and Vulnerability Studies, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh

The pharmaceutical market in Bangladesh is highly concentrated and the top 10% of the company covered 70% of the market share. In this competitive market, pharmaceutical companies adopt aggressive marketing strategies to achieve greater market share, which sometimes crosses the limit. Every company employs medical representatives to survive and expand their share in this competitive market. This higher competition leads the pharmaceutical companies to be aggressive in promoting their drugs by hook or crook. The medical representatives adopt various strategies and make the physicians unethically prescribe extra medicines, antibiotics, and unnecessary drugs. Eventually, that burdens the patients with extra healthcare costs. The study was conducted using qualitative data. An interview-based research design was followed to collect data from healthcare providers, physicians, and medical representatives to explore the promotional strategy of the pharmaceutical companies. Healthcare providers, physicians and medical representatives from Dhaka, Gazipur and Magura districts participated in the face to face in-depth interviews (IDI). Their provided data was used to understand the marketing strategy and how it influences the relevant sectors. The health sector in Bangladesh is highly structured where the pharmaceutical companies play an important role to fulfill the drug demand of the people at the home and abroad as well as store foreign currency by exporting drugs. Sometimes, the unethical practices of the physicians and pharmaceutical companies increase the health care expenditure. The medical representatives of a company play a key role to create aggressive marketing which increases the health care expenditure. The physicians prescribe inappropriately through the influence of medical representatives, which transfer the patient’s family to catastrophic health expenditure.

Md. Mahfujur Rahman,Md. Al-Amin,Kazi Mahfuzur."A Study on Role of Medical Representatives in Pharmaceutical Promotion in Bangladesh". International Journal of Computer Engineering In Research Trends (IJCERT) , ISSN:2349-7084, Vol.7, Issue 12,pp. 1-6, December - 2021, URL:,

Keywords : Medical Representatives, Physicians, Pharmaceutical Industry, Health, Bangladesh.

[1]	Hossain M. Management and marketing practices and problems of Pharmaceuticals Industry in Bangladesh. 2014 [cited 2020 Nov 15]; Available from:  
[2]	Murshid ME, Haque M. Bangladesh National Drug Policy 1982-2016 and Recommendations in Policy Aspects. Eurasian J Emerg Med. 2019 Jun 20;18(2):104–9.  
[3]	Islam S, Rahman A, Mahmood AK Al. Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Industry: Perspective and the Prospects. Bangladesh J Med Sci [Internet]. 2018 Sep 19 [cited 2020 Nov 14];17(4):519–25.  
[4]	Bangladesh Health Watch (BHW). Bangladesh Health Watch Report 2009: how healthy is health sector governance? 2010 [cited 2020 Nov 14]; Available from:  
[5]	Mohiuddin M, Rashid SF, Shuvro MI, Nahar N, Ahmed SM. Qualitative insights into promotion of pharmaceutical products in Bangladesh: How ethical are the practices? BMC Med Ethics. 2015 Dec 1;16(1).  
[6]	Raheem Ahmed R. Pharmaceutical drug promotion practices in Pakistan: Issues in ethical and non-ethical pharmaceutical practices Relationship between Demographic and Internet Usage View Project Social Loafing in Group Activities View project. Artic Middle East J Sci Res [Internet]. 2012 [cited 2020 Nov 14]; Available from:  
[7]	Bansal RK, Das S. Unethical relationship between doctors and drugs companies. JIAFM [Internet]. 2005 [cited 2020 Nov 14];7(1):40–2. Available from:  
[8]	Rohra DK, Gilani AH, Memon IK, Perven G, Khan MT, Zafar H, et al. Critical evaluation of the claims made by pharmaceutical companies in drug promotional material in Pakistan. J Pharm Pharm Sci [Internet]. 2006 Feb 14 [cited 2020 Nov 14];9(1):50–9. Available from:  
[9]	Ahmad M, Akhtar N, Awan MHA, Murtaza G. Ethical Evaluation of Pharmaceutical Marketing in Pakistan. Acta Bioeth [Internet]. 2011 [cited 2020 Nov 14];17(2):215–24.   
[10]	National Institute of Population Research and Training (NIPORT), Mitra and Associates, and ICF International. Bangladesh demographic and health survey 2011. NIPORT, Mitra and Associates, and ICF International [Internet]. 2013 [cited 2020 Nov 14]. Available from:   
[11]	Ventola CL. The antibiotic resistance crisis: causes and threats. P T J [Internet]. 2015 [cited 2020 Nov 14];40(4):277–83. Available from: 
[12]	Faiz M, Basher A. Antimicrobial resistance: Bangladesh experience. Reg Heal Forum [Internet]. 2011 [cited 2020 Nov 15];15(1):1–8. Available from: 
[13]	Rahman MS, Huda S. Antimicrobial resistance and related issues: An overview of Bangladesh situation. Bangladesh J Pharmacol [Internet]. 2014 May 10 [cited 2020 Nov 15];9(2):218–24. Available from:   
[14]	Arafat SMY, Ahmed Z. Medical Representative in Bangladesh: a Job with Different Pattern. Int J Acad Res Manag Bus [Internet]. 2016 [cited 2020 Nov 15];1(1):47–51. Available from:  
[15]	Bala K, Sharma K. Role of Medical Representatives in Influencing Medicine Prescription Behaviour of Doctors. J Bus Thought [Internet]. 2019 Mar 4 [cited 2020 Nov 15];10(0):39–52. Available from:  
[16]	Woolhouse M, Ward M, Van BB, Farrar J. Antimicrobial resistance in humans, livestock and the wider environmenT [Internet]. Vol. 370. Philosophical Transactions Of The Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences; 2015 [cited 2020 Nov 15]. p. 1931–1931. Available from:  
[17]	Baqui AH, Black RE, Arifeen S El, Yunus M, Zaman K, Begum N, et al. Zinc therapy for diarrhoea increased the use of oral rehydration therapy and reduced the use of antibiotics in Bangladeshi children. J Heal Popul Nutr [Internet]. 2004 [cited 2020 Nov 15];22(4):440–2. Available from: 
[18]	Chowdhury F, Rahman M, Huq M, Begum S. Rationality of drug uses: its Bangladeshi perspectives. Mymensingh Med J [Internet]. 2006 [cited 2020 Nov 15];15(2):215–9. Available from:  
[19]	Roy J. Health status, treatment and drug use in rural Bangladesh: A case study of a village. Aust J Rural Health [Internet]. 1997 May 1 [cited 2020 Nov 15];5(2):70–5. Available from: 
[20]	Ahmed SM, Hossain MA. Knowledge and practice of unqualified and semi-qualified allopathic providers in rural Bangladesh: Implications for the HRH problem. Health Policy (New York) [Internet]. 2007 Dec [cited 2020 Nov 15];84(2–3):332–43. Available from:  
[21]	Bhatt P. Study on Influence of Medical Representative in Conversation of Doctor’s Prescription in India. Glob J Manag Bus Reasearch [Internet]. 2018 [cited 2020 Nov 15];18(3-E). Available from:

DOI Link :

Download :

Refbacks : Currently there are no Refbacks


Authors are not required to pay any article-processing charges (APC) for their article to be published open access in Journal IJCERT. No charge is involved in any stage of the publication process, from administrating peer review to copy editing and hosting the final article on dedicated servers. This is free for all authors. 

News & Events

Latest issue :Volume 10 Issue 1 Articles In press

A plagiarism check will be implemented for all the articles using world-renowned software. Turnitin.

Digital Object Identifier will be assigned for all the articles being published in the Journal from September 2016 issue, i.e. Volume 3, Issue 9, 2016.

IJCERT is a member of the prestigious.Each of the IJCERT articles has its unique DOI reference.
DOI Prefix : 10.22362/ijcert

IJCERT is member of The Publishers International Linking Association, Inc. (“PILA”)

Emerging Sources Citation Index (in process)

IJCERT title is under evaluation by Scopus.

Key Dates

☞   LAST DATE OF SUBMISSION : 31st March 2023
In 7 Days

Important Announcements

All the authors, conference coordinators, conveners, and guest editors kindly check their articles' originality before submitting them to IJCERT. If any material is found to be duplicate submission or sent to other journals when the content is in the process with IJCERT, fabricated data, cut and paste (plagiarized), at any stage of processing of material, IJCERT is bound to take the following actions.
1. Rejection of the article.
2. The author will be blocked for future communication with IJCERT if duplicate articles are submitted.
3. A letter regarding this will be posted to the Principal/Director of the Institution where the study was conducted.
4. A List of blacklisted authors will be shared among the Chief Editors of other prestigious Journals
We have been screening articles for plagiarism with a world-renowned tool: Turnitin However, it is only rejected if found plagiarized. This more stern action is being taken because of the illegal behavior of a handful of authors who have been involved in ethical misconduct. The Screening and making a decision on such articles costs colossal time and resources for the journal. It directly delays the process of genuine materials.

Citation Index

Citations Indices All
Citations 1026
h-index 14
i10-index 20
Source: Google Scholar

Acceptance Rate (By Year)

Acceptance Rate (By Year)
Year Rate
2021 10.8%
2020 13.6%
2019 15.9%
2018 14.5%
2017 16.6%
2016 15.8%
2015 18.2%
2014 20.6%

Important Links

Conference Proposal